A << Back to top >>
AC - Alternating Current.
ADPCM - Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. A sophisticated
compression algorithm for digitizing audio that stores the differences between
successive samples rather than the absolute value of each sample. This method of
digitization also reduces storage requirements from 64K bits/second to as low as
AltiConsole - a personal computer-based Attendant console connected to the
AltiServ over the network that emulates a standard hardware-based Attendant
console through software and has the flexibility of adding new features through
software without changing the hardware.
AltiSpan - link from the AltiServ base to the system extension that allows for
passing Caller ID.
AltiWare - the system software that is used by AltiGen's Quantum and Triton
AltiServ - an advanced, highly integrated business and computer telephony
platform that consists of a Quantum and/or Triton card and AltiWare software
working in a PC/Server running under Windows.
analog - a method of telephony transmission in which the information from the
source (for example, speech in a human conversation) is converted into an electrical
signal that varies continuously over a range of amplitude values.
API - Applications Programming Interface. A set of routines that an application
program uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by an
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
B << Back to top >>
blocked calls - calls that cannot be immediately connected to the number dialed. A
call is defined as blocked when access paths to the called station are unavailable.
BPS - Bits Per Second. The number of bits transmitted per second.
C << Back to top >>
CAMA - (Central Automatic Message Accounting), dedicated trunks for enhanced
card - printed circuit assembly.
CCIS - Common Channel Interoffice Signaling. A method of carrying telephone
signaling information along a path different to the path used to carry voice.
Central Office (CO) - a switching system that connects lines to lines, lines to
trunks, and trunks to trunks. These systems are operated by local telephone
companies. The term sometimes refers to a telephone company building in which a
switching system is located and sometimes includes other equipment (such as
transmission system terminals).
Centrex (CTX) - a business telephone service offered by a local telephone
company from a local central office. Centrex is a single line telephone service,
delivered to individual desks or telephones with added features such as intercom,
call forwarding, call transfer, toll restriction, out call routing, and hold on single line
telephones. These features are provided by the local phone company's central
office. Centrex is a leased business service serving as an option to owning a PBX
or key telephone system.
channel - the smallest subdivision of a circuit capable of carrying communication
circuit - the physical connection of channels, conductors and equipment between
two given points. Includes both transmitting and receiving capabilities.
client - a process whose threads call services provided by either a local or remote
server process. In Windows, communication between a client and server occurs
through the local procedure call (LPC) or remote procedure call (RPC) facilities.
CO - Central Office.
conference call - a call in which two or more persons speak together. Stations may
be internal or external.
configuration databases - those databases that represent unique customer
specifications relating to system and station features.
console phone - emulates a standard Attendant Console through software. It
provides all the call handling features provided by a standard hardware-based
console and has the flexibility of adding new features through software without
changing the hardware (i.e. AltiConsole).
conversation path - the route from originating port to terminating port of a twoway
communication. A conversation requires two such port-to-port paths. Transmit
CTI - Computer Telephone Integration. Or in the case of an AltiServ, Computer
D << Back to top >>
database - a collection of related data that can be immediately accessed and
operated upon by a data processing system for a specific purpose.
DC - direct current. The flow of free electrons in one direction with an electrical
conductor, such as wire.
Default - the preset value from the factory or the software writer that the program
or equipment comes with. In the absence of any other command from the user, it
will work with default values.
DID - Direct Inward Dialing.
digit - a single whole number between 0 and 9.
disk duplexing - the procedure of copying data onto two hard drives, each using its
own hard drive controller. If any component (hard drive controller card, cable, boot
hard drive) on the first channel fails, then the second channel will boot and operate
disk mirroring - the procedure of duplicating data written to two identical hard
drives, where both hard drives are connected to one disk controller card. If one hard
drive fails, then the data can be retrieved from the second hard drive.
DNIS (Dialed Number Identification Service) - is a telephone service that
identifies for the receiver of a call the number that the caller dialed. It's a common
feature of 800 and 900 lines. If you have multiple 800 or 900 numbers to the same
destination, DNIS tells which number was called. DNIS works by passing the touch
tone digits (DTMF or MF digits) to the destination where a special facility can read
and display them or make them available for call center programming.
Do Not Disturb (DND) - when this feature is selected, all incoming calls to the
user's extension are denied. If the station has system forwarding instructions, the
calls will be automatically redirected to another extension, Attendant, or operator.
DTMF - Dual Tone Multi Frequency are the low and high frequency tones that
comprise touch tone signals.
drop-down menu - a list of options that display below a menu option.
DSP - Digital Signal Processor. A microprocessor with an architecture that is
particularly optimized to perform mathematical algorithms that manipulate digital
Dual Tone Multi Frequency - see DTMF.
E << Back to top >>
en-bloc dialing - dialing scheme that allows the terminal to include all the digits
required to complete a call.
environmental subsystem - A protected subsystem (server) that provides an
application programming interface (API) and environment - such as Win32,
MS-DOS, POSIX, or OS/2 - on Windows.
Ethernet - a communications protocol used in local area networks to connect
computers, terminals, printers, etc., typically located within the same building.
Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 10
megabits per second. Ethernet is a physical link and data link protocol reflecting the
two lowest layers of the DNA/OSI model.
Exchange Server Integration - provides unified messaging by synchronizing the
mailboxes in an AltiServ and Exchange Server, so that a user can access messages
in either server. If a message is added to one server, it is automatically sent to the
other server, similarly, if a message is deleted in one server it is automatically
deleted from the other server.
extension number - an arbitrary number of two to five digits that matches a station
to a particular user.
F << Back to top >>
FCC - Federal Communications Commission.
file server - an integral part of a multi-user computer network such as a local area
network (LAN). It typically is a combination of a computer, data management
software, and large capacity hard disk drive. A file server directs all movement of
files and data on a multi-user communications network and gives each user on the
network access to files stored on the file server. It allows the user to store
information, leave electronic mail messages for other users on the system and
access application software on the file server such as word processors or
FLASH - a sudden brief signal. Activated by depressing the flash key on the
telephone pad if one has been configured, or by a quick press and release of the
receiver button (switch hook).
FSK - Frequency Shift Keying. A modulation technique for data transmission.
FXS - Foreign Exchange Subscriber. An analog interface for direct connection of a
telephone set to a digital multiplexer.
G << Back to top >>
G.711 - algorithm designed to transmit and receive mu-law PCM voice (for North
America) and A-law at digital bit rate 64 Kbps.
G.723.1 - speech encoding/decoding standard at 5.6 Kbps or 6.3 Kbps.
G.729 - ITU standard algorithm speech encoding/decoding at 8 Kbps.
G.729A - simplified G.729
G.729B - silence suppresion scheme for G.729
G.729AB - the combination of G.729A + G.729B
GMT - Greenwich Mean Time. Mean solar time of the meridian at Greenwich,
England, used as the basis for standard time throughout the world.
ground start - a type of start signaling on a subscriber's trunks in which the ring
(minus side) is grounded (ground start) to get dial tone.
GUI - Graphical User Interface.
H << Back to top >>
hard disk - a sealed mass storage unit used for storing large amounts of data.
hardware - a term used to describe the physical components of a machine,
particularly computer equipment, and devices containing logic elements used in
data processing or communication equipment.
Hertz - cycles per second. Abbreviated as Hz.
http or HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The Internet protocol used to manage
communications between Web clients (browsers) and servers.
Hunt group - see Workgroups.
Hz - see definition for Hertz.
I << Back to top >>
Impedance - occurs when power or signal is transferred from one circuit to another.
This is known as the resistance of electrical current to alternating current and it is
measured in OHMs.
IMAP4 - Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4.
interface - the interconnections between two separate systems or pieces of
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture.
ISO - International Standards Organization.
ISP - Internet Service Provider.
J << Back to top >>
jack - the mate for a plug. Used to connect two pieces of equipment together.
K << Back to top >>
keyboard - system interface for communication. A group of numeric keys,
alphabetic keys, or function keys used for entering information into a terminal and
into the system. Usually patterned after the QWERTY keyboard layout. This term
is derived from the sequence of the first six keys in the first row of alphabetic keys.
L << Back to top >>
Language Server - allows the ability to record and play phrases in different foreign
languages without requiring any software changes.
Local address - an address used in a peripheral node or station in place of a network
address and transformed to or from a network address for delivery purposes.
Logoff - the procedure by which a user disconnects from a program or session.
Logon - the procedure by which a user begins a program or terminal session and
gains access to the AltiServ or Quantum system.
Loop Start - a type of start signaling. A closed path or circuit over which a signal
can circulate. When used on a telephone line, it tests the line, the circuit is closed
and reflects received signals to the sender.
M << Back to top >>
maintenance - any activity intended to retain a functional unit in, or to restore it to,
a state in which it can perform its required function. Maintenance includes keeping
a functional unit in a specified state by performing activities such as test,
measurements, replacements, adjustments, and repairs.
MAPI (Messaging API) - a Component Object Model (COM)-based API that
supports message-related components such as message stores, address book, and
MDMF - Multiple Data Message Format.
MHz - Megahertz.
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension. A technique designed to bundle
attachments within individual email files. Microsoft email protocol software
module - a compact assembly that is a component of a larger unit in electronics. A
detachable section, compartment or unit with a specific purpose or function.
mounting panel - the panel used to mount the connection panels to a wall.
ms - millisecond.
MVIP - Multi-Vendor Integration Protocol.
N << Back to top >>
network - A configuration of data processing and/or telecommunication devices
and software connected for information exchange.
network address - An identifier for a node, station, or unit of equipment in a
network domain - a set of workstations and servers that share a security account
manager database and can be administered as a group. A user with an account in a
particular network domain can log onto and access his or her account from any
system in the domain.
network server - networking software that responds to I/O or computes requests
from a client machine. Windows network servers can be implemented either as
server processes or as drivers.
numbering plan - the method of assigning NNX codes to provide a unique
telephone address for each subscriber, special line, or trunk destination. In
AltiWare, the method of assigning extension numbers and trunk designations to
North American Numbering Plan - also known as NPA. Refers to the assignment
and management of the area code system for North America. Administered by
Bellcore, presently being expanded due to high demand for new numbers and
services, requiring new area codes. Numbering sequence being changed from
traditional N 1/0 X area code (center digit a 1 or a 0) to NNX, where N = numbers
1 to 9 and X = any number.
O << Back to top >>
offhook - refers to a telephone set when the receiver is not resting in the base. This
usually initiates a dial tone from the receiver.
One Number Access - a feature of AltiWare that allows users to create a list of
phone numbers that the system can use to track users and connect them with an
incoming call if they are not at their extension desk.
onhook - the term used to describe a telephone in the idle state or with the receiver
still resting in the base.
OSI - Open Systems Interconnection. A software model defined by the
International Standards Organization that standardizes levels of service and types
of interaction for networked computers. The OSI reference model defines seven
layers of computer communication and what each layer is responsible for.
overlap dialing - dialing scheme that allows the terminal to omit part of the digits
required to complete a call, while the remaining digits are buffered.
P << Back to top >>
PABX - Private Automatic Branch Exchange. A private branch exchange (PBX)
that provides access to and from the public telephone network without operator
PBX - Private Branch Exchange. A switching system providing telephone
communications between internal stations and external networks.
PCM - Pulse Code Modulation.
physical extension - is associated with a physical port and device. An extension is
created, by default, as a physical extension (as opposed to a virtual or workgroup
extension) unless there are no more physical ports available.
pilot number - the extension number that identifies a workgroup or distribution
POP3 - Post Office Protocol version 3. Protocol for retrieving email by remote
port - a communication channel through which a client process communicates with
a protected subsystem.
POSIX - an acronym defined as "a portable operating system interface based on
UNIX," refers to a collection of international standards for UNIX-style operating
system interfaces. In the mid-to-late 1980's, government agencies began specifying
POSIX as a procurement standard for government computing contracts.
Power Failure Backup - If your AC power fails, your telephone system can still
operate by switching to a backup battery power supply, often called an
(Uninterrupted Power Supply) UPS.
Power Failure Transfer - A telephone system feature. When the commercial AC
power fails and there is no backup power source such as a battery or a generator,
this feature switches some of the trunks connected to the telephone system to
several single line phones that do not need external power and can draw their power
from the telephone lines.
Power Supply - the part of the telephone system or a computer that converts the
normal 120 or 240 volts AC power to AC and DC at the various voltages and
frequencies as needed by various components and circuits of the system.
Private Network - A series of offices connected together by leased and non-leased
telephone lines, with switching facilities and transmission equipment owned and
operated by the user or by the carrier and leased to the user.
Protected subsystems - integral subsystems that perform important operating
system functions, such as security subsystems among others.
protocol - A set of rules and conventions by which two computers pass messages
across a network medium. Networking software generally implements multiple
levels of protocols layered one on top of the other.
Q << Back to top >>
Quantum - an ISA standard computer telephony board of AltiGen's AltiServ
product line. It is an all-in-one platform designed with open software standards to
facilitate use of enhanced applications.
queue - a collection of calls waiting to be served. Queued calls in AltiWare are
handled on a first-in, first-out basis.
R << Back to top >>
RAM - Random Access Memory. The primary memory in a computer that can be
written over with new information. The contents of RAM memory are lost when the
electrical power to the PC is switched off.
RAS - Remote Access Service.
retry - to resend data a prescribed number of times or until the data is finally
RJ-11 - The "common" telephone jack. Usually wired with four wires, the red and
green signify the tip and ring circuits.
RJ-45 - The "common" telephone jack. Usually wired with eight wires, the red and
green signify the tip and ring circuits.
ROM - Read Only Memory.
root directory - in an IBM or compatible PC, the directory that is created when the
user formats a diskette that may contain subdirectories. Synonymous with system
S << Back to top >>
SDMF - Single Data Message Format.
server - a process with one or more threads that accepts requests from client
processes. It implements a set of services that it makes available to clients running
either on the same computer or possibly on various computers in a distributed
slot - a numbered division of a computer in which a printed circuit card is located.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Protocol for sending Internet email.
station - any location wired to accept a telephone, sometimes referred to as an
extension. Also another name for a place where a call can be answered. It may be a
telephone, an Attendant console, a PC, or any other device.
subscriber - a user or connection. The line from a telephone to a switch.
System Speed Dialing - this feature allows the user to access a system wide
directory of commonly called numbers that have been "condensed" into a two- or
three-digit code on the telephone dial pad.
T << Back to top >>
TAPI - Telephone Application Programming Interface. A call-processing software
that allows developers to implement telephony applications that control switches
from different vendors.
TCP/IP - Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A full set of protocols used
on the Internet.
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing.
telecommunications - any transmission, emission, or reception of signals, writing,
images, or other information by wire, radio, or any other electromagnetic system.
Tip and Ring - the traditional telephony indication of plus and minus in electrical
circuits. (See Ground start and Loop start.)
toll call - a call to a point outside of the local service calling area. Identified by
greater distance and increased rates or by 1 plus dialing requirements.
toll restriction - a feature that allows the user to restrict certain station users from
placing toll calls, or other non-business related locations.
traffic - a measure of the demand or use of facilities, circuits, or trunks. Measured
by converting seconds and minutes into CCSs (Centum Call Seconds) and Erlangs
(hours of use per hour).
transfer - this feature redirects a call to another extension, the AltiGen Voice
Mail System, or operator.
Triton - an ISA standard computer telephony board of AltiGen's AltiServ product
line. It is an all-in-one platform designed with open software standards to facilitate
use of enhanced applications.
trunk - one of the cables that contain numerous shared telephone circuits used to
interconnect telephone switching centers.
trunk access code - the prefix digit (i.e. 9) dialed to access a trunk line and dial an
external phone number.
trunk group - trunks of a common type, given an identity to distinguish between
different types of connecting facilities.
U << Back to top >>
UCA - Universal Communication Architecture.
UPS - Uninterrupted Power Supply. A backup battery module attached to a
computer that allows memory contents to remain intact long enough for the
operating system to perform an orderly system shutdown if a power outage occurs.
USB - Universal Serial Bus.
V << Back to top >>
virtual extension - an extension not associated with a physical port that allows for
guest access to the AltiGen Voice Mail System features and telephone sharing
environments. Users of a virtual extension have to log in before accessing the
system features assigned to it.
W << Back to top >>
WATS - Wide Area Telephone Service. A leased service for direct long distance
Wink - a single supervisory pulse.
workgroup - telephones arranged in groups within a particular organizational
function (for example, marketing, sales, service, etc.). Each workgroup is assigned
a pilot number. When the pilot number is dialed, the system scans the list of
extensions comprising the workgroup and connects the call to the first available idle
extension number. If no extensions are available, the call is placed in that
workgroup pilot number - an extension designated to a workgroup that is not
associated with a physical port and may consist of up to 64 members. When the pilot
number is dialed, the call is distributed to the workgroup members.
World Wide Web - A network of Internet servers that can provide browser
information in the form of web pages to web clients such as Netscape Navigator.